The addition of carbon monoxide to reactive groups takes place at medium to high pressure and low temperatures. Sodium salts of alcohols or similar compounds are often used as catalysts. The substitution of carbon monoxide in reactive groups and the subsequent alkoxylation is normally carried out at low temperatures and pressures using special catalysts.

Typical addition carbonylation reactions that have been successfully carried out in the loop reactor are:

  • Methanol to methylformiate
  • Dimethylamine to dimethylformamide

Typical substitution carbonylation reactions that have been successfully carried out in the loop reactor are:

  • 2,4-dinitrotoluene to 2,4-Dialkylcarbamatetoluene
  • Chloroacetic acid ethylester to Malonic acid diethylester
  • Benzylchloride to Phenylacetic acid methylester

The primary HH Loop Reactor advantages are:

  • high mass transfer rates
  • Reduced overall reaction time
  • High yield and conversion rates
  • Batch reproducibility